Violence can take many forms, and it can also be seen in different ways. In its information note, published on April 21, the High Commission for Planning (HCP) looked at the differentiation of violence between women and men and its male perception.
The document, consulted by Hespress Fr, highlights the main differences in the manifestations of violence for women and men and their perceptions of this violence for a better understanding of the phenomenon in its different contexts and forms.
It is thus revealed that the results of the 2019 national survey on violence against women and men reveal that nearly 50% of the population aged 15 to 74 years have suffered at least one act of violence in the past. during the 12 months preceding the survey, 57% of women and 42% of men. In addition to the trends of violence in the society to which women are exposed, violence also manifests itself among men, but with a lower incidence.
Male perception of violence
In this section, the HCP explains that men’s perceptions of violence mainly relate to the definition of violence, the most vulnerable categories, the living spaces most affected, the evolution of violence in Moroccan society and social relations between men and women, in particular gender relations in connection with the sharing of authority within the household and the acceptance of violence in the conjugal context.
Discrepancy between the lived and the perceived
According to the HCP, nearly 66% of men perceive violence as physical (64% in urban areas against 68% in rural areas). For 19%, violence is psychological (21% in urban areas against 17% in rural areas) although its prevalence is high among men. In addition, violence is perceived as economic for 8% and sexual for 5% of men. Men with more advanced educational levels are more susceptible to psychological violence compared to others. 24% among those of higher level against 17% for the other levels specifies the same note.
Regarding the perceptions of the contexts most marked by violence, the HCP argues that although in terms of prevalence, the marital context is the most violent living space, it is however perceived as such by only 21% of men. Rather, it is public places that are perceived as the living spaces most at risk of violence (58%).
Likewise, it is the public space which, according to men’s perceptions, has experienced an increase in violence over the past five years. More than 78% of men believe that violence has increased there (79% in urban areas and 75% in rural areas). The marital context comes in second place with 58% of men who believe that violence has increased there (59% in urban areas and 55% in rural areas). The increase in domestic violence is particularly seen by divorced men (64%) and those aged 45 to 59 (61%).
This gap between the lived and the perceived is due precisely, according to the note of the HCP, to the public aspect of violence in public places and its media coverage, increasingly growing by social networks, which makes it more felt. , unlike domestic and institutional violence which is often experienced in private or in silence.
Male awareness of women’s vulnerability
Women are perceived as being the social category most vulnerable to violence by 42% of men while the category of men is only considered as such by 6% according to the HCP.
Regarding the evolution of violence over the last five years, 55% of men have felt its increase when it comes to violence against women, 49% when it comes to violence against women. men and 48% when it comes to violence against children. In addition, during the last five years, 64% of men consider that sexual violence has increased against women against 52% against children.
Poverty, material conflicts, lack of communication …
Regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, men blame the occurrence of violence above all on material and socio-economic factors (poverty and youth unemployment in this case) as well as on relational factors, including communication problems. . There are certainly variations according to certain characteristics and according to the contexts studied.
Regarding domestic violence, material conflicts of interest are cited as the main causes of violence by 39% of men in urban areas. In rural areas, poverty is cited first by 44% of men. The two factors combined, material conflicts of interest and poverty, represent the main risk factors for domestic violence for 74% of men (73% in urban areas and 77% in rural areas). Communication problems are blamed by more than 6% of men; 9% among young people aged between 15 and 24 and also among men with a higher education level.
Violence in public places
In this section, the HCP indicates that regardless of their socio-demographic characteristics, men cite three main factors for the occurrence of violence in public places. These are poverty (40%), drug and alcohol consumption (21%), the low educational and cultural level of the perpetrators of violence (8%).